Greenhouse engineering is an important carrier for the development of facility agriculture, as well as a “workshop” or workshop for the development of industrialization, intelligence and digitalization of agriculture. In the past 20 years, the development of greenhouse engineering from low to high level, from a single space to a comprehensive decoration, configuration, from simple to multi-functional power, from labour-intensive to machine generation, automatic control as the characteristics of technology-intensive, and so on, experienced a continuous development, continuous breakthrough, continuous improvement, keep pace with The Times, and the development of modern agriculture both adapt to each other and promote the process.
Facility agriculture, represented by greenhouse engineering, has gradually become a new symbol of the development of modern agriculture, a new demonstration of agricultural high-tech agglomeration and a new benchmark for comprehensively improving labour productivity, land yield and overall benefit. The continuous promotion of industrial poverty alleviation and the effective connection of rural revitalization have promoted the rapid development of greenhouse project construction, which has shown several obvious trends of transformation and development at present:
Type of Greenhouse
From low-end and multiple types gradually to high-end high-grade type transformation. Greenhouse development has gone through the development of arch shed, single shed, terraced shed, glass greenhouse, its scale layout from small to large, its main business from small farmers to the new main body, its driving effect from the dotted to various demonstration parks, Its economic form from a number of main body fragmentation construction to unified planning, diversified investment, formation of specialization base, marketoriented development of regional economic new forms, new economy.
Development of Engineering Technology in Greenhouse Construction
From small knocks, low-end materials, field manpower construction gradually to new materials, high quality, and packaged project construction direction change. Basic construction materials, from bamboo pole, stick, bow butt, iron wire rope binding gradually developed to replace steel pipe, steel pipe, galvanized steel pipe, column, beam and other main materials steel structure, plastic film from ordinary film to high-grade, special, multifunctional film development, new materials to promote the construction of greenhouse constantly update; In the construction technology, step by step on site selection, design, material supply, construction, accessories and another one-stop production road. The analysis of the situation gathered by the China Greenhouse Industry Conference in 2022 showed that, like the automobile industry, greenhouse engineering has formed a new industry with industrial chain, innovation chain, market chain, capital chain, multi-link and multi-chain connection. With one demand and multiple combined supply, new technology and new materials lead the construction of greenhouse engineering to improve, and the innovation of light industry manufacturing industry leads the innovative development of greenhouse engineering.
Use of Greenhouse Engineering Function
From seedling to production, from planting to aquaculture, from single to comprehensive, the development of three-dimensional space utilization, so that plants, animals, microorganisms three things a shelter, integrated production, the new demonstration of modern agriculture to a new height. Some places based on the shed seedling, promote the construction of special agricultural products base, and promote the new development of large-scale, regional, special, highquality and efficient agriculture.
Greenhouse Project Equipment
Configuration of High Technical Level The rise of the Internet of Things, the Internet, digital agriculture, and smart agriculture has fundamentally transformed and upgraded the modernization of greenhouse projects, and supported the high-quality development of greenhouse projects. And what’s striking is that.
First, all kinds of practical small agricultural machinery into the shed operation, “by the machine instead of people”, the labour force from the shed liberation, the productivity leap.
Second, the introduction of automation and automation control technology, in the limited shed space, the network technology, and digital technology effectively combined to achieve mechanization, automation, and intelligent production operations.
Third, the effective integration and use of temperature, humidity, light and other technologies, gradually realized soil cultivation to soilless cultivation, ground planting to three-dimensional multi-level planting, greatly improve the greenhouse space, natural conditions and other efficient use, and improve product quality and economic benefits. Fourth, the use of new technology, new process, the concept of carbon reduction, carbon elimination into the construction of greenhouse, to promote the green development of greenhouse production. In some localities, greenhouse construction projects are planned together with power plants, cement plants and other enterprises with heavy tasks of carbon reduction and carbon reduction, and the two production projects are carried out together, seeking new ways to make contribution to the goal of “carbon peak and carbon neutrality” by using agricultural engineering, and opening up a new way of industrial integration, ecological harmony and green development.
Greenhouse Project Overall Operation and Comprehensive Benefits
Greenhouse project operation main body, mode, industrial development, yield rate, per mu benefit and so on have undergone fundamental changes. Greenhouse project construction and operation from one house to more than one house, from scattered management to multi-household joint or cooperative unified management; From the shed to a large area of shed joint construction or collective package rental business; From self-construction and self-operation to separate construction and operation or integrated operation, we have walked out of a new way of “materialization” management, “nanny” service and entrusted operation by professional companies. Continuous innovation in industrial management has begun a big leap from simple production to seedling cultivation, production, characteristic industries, base construction and the development of characteristic regional economy.
The greenhouse project has begun to lead the adjustment of industrial structure, industrial transformation, industrial integration, as well as the new exploration and demonstration of the development of digital agriculture, smart agriculture and high-quality and efficient agriculture. The greenhouse project has begun to be the carrier.
Integrate modern agricultural technology, modern production management mode and modern agricultural operation mode to make comprehensive efforts to promote the modernization of agricultural productivity and the new process of high-quality agricultural development. Greenhouse engineering makes agricultural benefit greatly improved, from the benefit per mu of “one mu shed ten mu field”, to the benefit per mu of 50 thousand yuan, 100 thousand yuan, even 150 thousand yuan of new height, “factory” agriculture not only the “per mu on the hero” concept of agriculture but also per mu on the hero has become a reality. Greenhouse project makes people see the future agricultural development of new potential, new direction.